Class V Management with a Wellhead/Shallow
Aquifer Protection Area
A cooperative demonstration project between the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the East Dakota
Water Development District (EDWDD) was initiated in the Brookings, South Dakota area in July 1990. The purpose of the project
was to formulate effective regulation of shallow Class V injection wells through integration with other groundwater protection
programs. The project was preceded by (1) EPA conducting a mail inventory and fluid sampling of potential Class V facilities in the
area, (2) intensive study of the vulnerable shallow groundwater resources of the Big Sioux Aquifer and (3) strong local efforts to
protect these resources.
The mail inventory and field inspections identified 15 Class V wells, primarily facilities servicing internal combustion engines and
other businesses disposing of their wastes through septic systems. Analyses from three of four samples wells showed some
constituents exceeding maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.
EDWDD established a federal, state, and local task force to guide the project. EDWDD integrated Class V well control with local
groundwater protection ordinances, a public water supply vulnerability assessment program and local emergency
response/hazardous materials programs. Potential contamination sources other than Class V wells identified in the area are
abandoned rural domestic wells, livestock feeding areas and irrigation systems. A U.S. Department of Agriculture water quality
demonstration project was initiated to help reduce contamination from these sources.
In March 1992, EDWDD advised operators of twelve facilities with priority types of identified Class V wells they should begin
examining closure options because closure of these wells had become an EPA priority. Seven specific closure options were
suggested. Most of these facilities began talking positive steps to close (eliminate) their Class V wells.
A project video was developed to extend project benefits to other areas. South Dakota Nonpoint Source officials decided to use
the video as part of an educational program focusing on community sources of nonpoint source contamination. This video is
available at the EDWDD office in Brookings.