Class V Management with a Wellhead/Shallow Aquifer Protection Area
Executive Summary

A cooperative demonstration project between the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the East Dakota Water Development District (EDWDD) was initiated in the Brookings, South Dakota area in July 1990. The purpose of the project was to formulate effective regulation of shallow Class V injection wells through integration with other groundwater protection programs. The project was preceded by (1) EPA conducting a mail inventory and fluid sampling of potential Class V facilities in the area, (2) intensive study of the vulnerable shallow groundwater resources of the Big Sioux Aquifer and (3) strong local efforts to protect these resources.
The mail inventory and field inspections identified 15 Class V wells, primarily facilities servicing internal combustion engines and other businesses disposing of their wastes through septic systems. Analyses from three of four samples wells showed some constituents exceeding maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.

EDWDD established a federal, state, and local task force to guide the project. EDWDD integrated Class V well control with local groundwater protection ordinances, a public water supply vulnerability assessment program and local emergency response/hazardous materials programs. Potential contamination sources other than Class V wells identified in the area are abandoned rural domestic wells, livestock feeding areas and irrigation systems. A U.S. Department of Agriculture water quality demonstration project was initiated to help reduce contamination from these sources.

In March 1992, EDWDD advised operators of twelve facilities with priority types of identified Class V wells they should begin examining closure options because closure of these wells had become an EPA priority. Seven specific closure options were suggested. Most of these facilities began talking positive steps to close (eliminate) their Class V wells.

A project video was developed to extend project benefits to other areas. South Dakota Nonpoint Source officials decided to use the video as part of an educational program focusing on community sources of nonpoint source contamination. This video is available at the EDWDD office in Brookings.